One of the thinnest spots in the earth’s crust is also the lowest point in the USA – Death Valley, California. It is only 16 miles thick. Some points in the earth’s crust, like the Himalayas, are over 40 miles thick. The interesting thing is that the crust under Death Valley is getting even thinner every year.


I have pointed out in previous postings that North Africa was a lush verdant land until 5,500 years ago when, in less than 200 years, it became the Sahara Desert. I thought some might find additional information about the Sahara’s history interesting.

Scientists say that what is now North Africa was a shallow sea until 20 million years ago. At that point the African tectonic plate began to move north. As it pushed against the European plate the edge of it was pushed upward until it was above sea level and became North Africa. At that time there was no rain fall in that area so it quickly dried out and became a desert. It remained that way for thousands of years. Then it changed. It began to rain. This rain was the beginning of a cycle of change every 20,000 years. These cycles have taken North Africa from a lush verdant land full of life to a hot dry lifeless desert with every cycle. The predominate theory about the cause of these cycles is that they are caused by a wobble of the Earth’s axis. But it’s just a theory. No one knows for sure. What scientists have been able to demonstrate is that the cycle has been reliably repeating every 20,000 years.

The Great Lakes in America were long said to contain the largest single source of fresh water in the world and 20% of the world’s total. Recent research has revealed that this fact must be modified. Scientists now maintain that until 5,500 years ago fully 10% of North Africa was covered with lakes. Lakes so big they are called “Mega Lakes.” They were three times larger than the Great Lakes and connected by an extensive river system. It is known that extensive farming was taking place and the raising of animals. Fossils have been found of elephants, gazelles, hippos and crocodiles. Cave art has been found in the desert of people swimming. Perhaps the most interesting thing about that hot dry Sahara Desert today is that underneath of it there is still more water than is in the Great Lakes. Plans are afoot to pump that water to the surface for irrigation to allow the desert to be farmed. The problem is that it will be several thousand years before that reservoir under the desert will be refilled when the cycle returns to a rainy clime.


Uncle Bernie says heath care is a right. As you know, without health care, there is a possibility you might get sick. And if you get sick there is a even chance you may die. But when it comes to food there are no possibilities or chances. WITHOUT FOOD YOU WILL DIE. Why, then, is food not a right?

Uncle Bernie also says that health care should be “single payer.” You go to the doctor and endorse a bill for the services you receive. The doctor presents that bill to the gummamint and the gummamint pays him/her.

It would seem that the right to food, too, should be “single payer.” You go to the supermarket and fill up your cart with food. You go to the checkout counter and the clerk scans all your food items and you swipe your “right to food” card. The supermarket sends your food list to the gummamint and the gummamint reimburses the supermarket for your food.

This is going to be great. I see those gigantic shrimp in the seafood section and the thick fancy steaks for sale. Of course, I’ve never been able to afford that stuff in the past. I’m really looking forward to this new gummamint program.